I would say that a PbtA GM Move and an OSR GM ruling for what happens to the PC who just missed a roll, are essentially the same thing. The difference between the two play styles comes earlier in the process of players doing stuff:
In PbtA game, the player states what their character is doing, the GM then decided if mechanics are required and if so calls for a Move, the player rolls and then if it is successful, follows the rules in the Move, if it fails the GM invents or chooses a GM Move.
In an OSR game the player states what their character is doing, the GM then decides if mechanics are required. If they are, there might be something suitable in the system already (to hit roll / a Halfling’s hide in wilderness chance / a Thief’s climb %) or the GM might need to make a ruling. Then we might get a roll and then the GM will decide both the outcome and the consequences.
This is also tied to the way settings are presented in these two play styles. In OSR the world is what the GM has decided it should be (possibly with the aid of random generators during prep). The GM can maintain their knowledge of the setting and the setting’s consistency because they have full control of what rules and rulings are applied, and what their effect is.
Apocalypse World meanwhile is pretty explicit that you should leave the detail till later, assume all your NPCs can die at any moment, play to find out how dangerous your Fronts are. This means that when the PCs are successful, their Moves can give them permission to change that world, or add detail in places the GM was instructed to leave vague. This is great and it really focuses stories on the PCs and their actions, but it is not how OSR games work.
So can OSR and PbtA be combined? Yes, absolutely, but I don’t think it’s possible to have a game which feels like both it’s inspirations. Certainly Freebooters and Vgabonds didn’t feel like OSR to me. World of Dungeons comes closer because it is so loose and without Moves the players aren’t given much control beyond their characters, but I know that some people don’t feel that it still PbtA.
I wonder if World of Dungeons can simply be played either as a PbtA game or as an OSR game because it is so light that you can run it however you like. And if that’s the case, I wonder if anyone has ever managed to run it like both at the same time.